We introduce a family of transformations of the plane which
turn out to generate the affine group A(2). The definition is
purely geometric. It can be motivated by considering the
relationship between all the shadows of an object.
If Π and Π' are planes in R3, and v is a vector
to either, then
parallel projection from Π to Π' along v
is the map from Π to Π' mapping the point P on Π to P',
the point where the line through P parallel to v cuts Π'.
The definition of a parallel projection t from Π to Π' is purely
To obtain an algebraic description, we suppose
that Π and Π' are each
equipped with (rectangular) x- and
y-axes. Then the transformation has a familiar form.
A parallel projection is an element of A(2).
proof of theorem A1
Although every parallel projection is an affine transformation,
not every affine transformation is a parallel projection. To see
this, we can use the following
A parallel projection t preserves the lengths of segments
of at least one line.
If the planes Π and Π' are parallel, then it is easy to see that
the map t preserves the length of every segment.
Otherwise Π and Π' meet in a line L. The points of L are fixed
pointwise by t, so the length of every segment of L is fixed.
Now note that the dilation about O with scale factor 2 doubles
the length of every segment. This is the affine transformation
taking x to 2Ix+0. Thus, we have an affine transformation
which is not a parallel projection.
However, we can obtain any affine transformation by
composing parallel projections:
The affine group A(2) is generated by parallel projections.
proof of theorem A2